Friday, May 15, 2009

Evasion With OLE2 Fragmentation

Via BreakingPoint Labs (HD Moore) -

At BreakingPoint, we provide comprehensive coverage of Microsoft Tuesday patches. This Tuesday was no different and we released StrikePacks 45799 and 45800 to cover MS09-017 (the PowerPoint vulnerabilities). In addition to writing exploits for these flaws, we also research application-specific evasion methods. In the case of file format flaws, we support evasion at every level, including techniques like IP fragmentation, alternate MIME encodings, HTTP compression, and data randomization within the files themselves. While working on Strike coverage for MS09-017, we discovered a simple way to bypass mainstream anti-virus and IPS signatures for malicious Office documents. This post talks about the method we used and some of our test results against popular anti-virus products.


Office documents are some of the most convoluted file formats in wide-spread use. The basic structure of these files is based on the Compound Document Format (OLE2 Structured Storage). This format is essentially a block-based filesystem with specific files and directories for each type and version of Office document. The actual "file" entries within these documents are also proprietary and change based on the version and features of the Office software used to create them. In order to detect a file format exploit, the parsing software needs to understand OLE2, locate the correct entry containing the document contents, and parse through that content to locate the specific structure that triggers the exploit. This process is CPU intensive and requires the parsing software to have a deep understanding of the version-specific Office document data inside of the OLE2 container. Creating software to do this correctly is expensive and time consuming, so the easy solution is to ignore the document format entirely and just scan for exploit-specific signatures. This is what most anti-virus and IPS products do today.

Just like most block-based filesystems, the OLE2 format is susceptible to fragmentation. When the Office software wants to write data, it tries to consume any available free blocks before allocating new ones. The OLE2 format has two different block tables; one for small entries (normally set to be less than 4096 bytes), and another for larger contiguous segments. Although fragmentation can occur during normal editing of an Office document, it is rare for documents to be heavily fragmented.

It turns out that there is an excellent OLE library for Ruby, written by a developer who goes by aquasync. This library makes it easy to create and modify Compound Document files. With a little bit of scripting, we were able to create a tool (available below) to force heavy fragmentation of Office documents. Out first test of this tool used a Melissa variant as the base document. Uploading the raw Melissa Word document to resulted in 39 out of 40 AV products recognizing the document as malicious. After running this file through the refragmenter script, the results were only 10 out of 40. This is horrible coverage for a file that had the exact same OLE2 contents as the original sample, albeit in a different block order. Any product able to parse OLE2 streams correctly should be able to identify this file just as accurately as the non-fragmented version. Once we modifed the script to use 64 byte writes instead of 512, we only see detection in 7 out of 40 products. Keep in mind that this malware was originally released in 1999!


PS and IDS developers have a great excuse for poor Office document coverage - this type of analysis is difficult and processor intensive. However, this is precisely the area where anti-virus products are supposed to succeed. Its embarrassing that so many products fail to detect known threats that have the exact same byte stream, just reordered using a mechanism that occurs in real documents. In our testing, the only public tool that can accurately identify fragmented Office documents is Office Cat, written by Lurene Grenier of the Sourcefire VRT. This tool uses the Windows OLE API to parse each stream, regardless of fragmentation, and scans deep into the document format to detect individual exploits.

All BreakingPoint Strikes that target Office document flaws have been updated to support the OLE::RefragmentData option, which performs an operation similar to the refragmenter Ruby script below.

The refragmenter script can be downloaded here.

This script depends on the ruby-ole library, which can be found online at

For more information about Office document flaws and exploitation methods, we recommend Bruce Dang's Black Hat USA 2008 presentation Methods for Understanding Targeted Attacks with Office Documents.

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